Whole Numbers: Count, read, and write whole numbers to 1,000 and identify the place value for each digit.

Representing Numbers: Use words, models, and expanded forms (e.g., 45 = 4 tens + 5) to represent numbers (to 1,000).

Use of Symbols: Order and compare whole numbers to 1,000 by using the symbols < =, >.

Addition and Subtraction: Understand and use the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., an opposite number sentence for 8 + 6 = 14 is 14 - 6 = 8) to solve problems and check solutions.

Multiplication of Numbers: Use repeated addition, arrays, and counting by multiples to do multiplication.

Division of Numbers Use repeated subtraction, equal sharing, and forming equal groups with remainders to do division.

Multiplication Tables: Know the multiplication tables of 2s, 5s, and 10s (to "times 10") and commit them to memory.

Fractions

Money Problems: Solve problems using combinations of coins and bills.

Decimals: Know and use the decimal notation and the dollar and cent symbols for money.

Rounding and Estimation: Recognize when an estimate is reasonable in measurements (e.g., closest inch).

Algebra and Functions

Laws of Algebra: Use the commutative and associative rules to simplify mental calculations and to check results.

Word Problems: Relate problem situations to number sentences involving addition and subtraction.

Measurement and Geometry

Measurement: Measure the length of objects by iterating (repeating) a nonstandard or standard unit.

Units of measurement: Use of different units to measure the same object and predicting whether the measure will be greater or smaller when a different unit is used.

Time Determination and Conversion: Determination of time to the nearest quarter hour and relationships of time (e.g., minutes in an hour, days in a month, weeks in a year).

Classification of Shapes: Describe and classify plane and solid geometric shapes (e.g., circle, triangle, square, rectangle, sphere, pyramid, cube, rectangular prism) according to the number and shape of faces, edges, and vertices.

Properties of shapes: Put shapes together and take them apart to form other shapes (e.g., two congruent right triangles can be arranged to form a rectangle).

Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability

Data Collection: Record numerical data in systematic ways, keeping track of what has been counted.

Representing Data: Represent the same data set in more than one way (e.g., bar graphs and charts with tallies).

Interpreting Data: Identify features of data sets (range and mode).

Understanding Patterns: Recognize, describe, and extend patterns and determine a next term in linear patterns (e.g., 4, 8, 12...; the number of ears on one horse, two horses, three horses, four horses).

Problems Involving Patterns: Solve problems involving simple number patterns.

Mathematical Reasoning

Use of Tools and Strategies: Determine the approach, materials, and strategies to be used. Use tools, such as manipulatives or sketches, to model problems.

Reasoning: Defend the reasoning used and justify the procedures selected.

Calculations and Result Verification: Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results in the context of the problem.